Law is an organised system of laws developed and enforced by governmental or social institutions to govern behavior, usually with its exact definition somewhat a matter of long standing debate. In the United States it is defined as the art and science of civil law. There are many other types of law such as criminal law, tax law, contract law, family law, patent law, family disputes, property law, contract law and administrative law. In the legal system there are several branches including common-law, civil law, federal law, family law, probate law, and corporate law.
A branch of the legal system that most people have heard about is civil law. It covers matters of right and wrong, including private wrongs such as slander and libel, among others things like actions in tort, guarantees of rights, trusts, property, and the legal system itself including the courts. Civil law includes many things like wrongful death, professional negligence, contract disputes, tax and financial crimes, and damages and personal injury claims.
Criminal law is the part of the legal system that deals with offenses against the state, such as murder, manslaughter, burglary, arson, assault, drunk driving, sex crimes, pornography, drug crimes, and capital punishment. Criminal law also includes things like felonies and misdemeanors. Criminal law is a field of laws that are unique and are designed to criminalize behavior. Within the criminal justice system there are different levels of crime, such as felony, misdemeanor, and so on. The most severe crime is a felony, but there are minor offenses as well, including drug possession and drug trafficking.
Property law is a branch of criminal law that is concerned with the laws that govern ownership of real property and personal property. Real property is generally defined as any immovable property including money, goods, and so on. Virtually anything you own can be considered a form of real property. For instance, money in a bank account is real property.
Tort law is the branch of criminal law that deals with civil wrongs or damages to another person’s reputation. For example, if someone is injured in a car crash and he or she sue the other driver, then this driver can be sued for personal damages to the injured person and injuries sustained. It is very easy to file a tort claim in most cases, but it must be proven beyond doubt that the defendant was responsible for the accident. For example, in the case of a car accident, a pedestrian may sue the driver for injuries sustained.
Piersonism is a controversial area of criminal law. The phrase “PIersonism” is derived from a famous 18th century case, Roper v. Atkins. There was a former police officer, Frank Atkins, who shot an unarmed man who posed no immediate threat. He later said that he had seen the man, George Pierson, kill a man with his gun, and therefore, the policeman had every right to kill him also.
A famous case from California, which involves a dispute over the border, will now have its day in court. In the McDonald v. California case, which started in 2021, the California Supreme Court has ordered that the original California law, which defined California’s personal property law as including cattle, was changed. Under the new law, cattle are not considered personal property, therefore they cannot be seized by the state. The California Supreme Court said that the old law, which allowed the seizure of cattle if the owner owed a tax on them, violates the rights of property owners. This is just one of many different decisions that have affected California property law.
Other common law courts deal with a number of other local issues such as the right of appeal. Some common law states allow juries to decide cases even when there are no attorneys present. One common law case is the dispute between two neighbors over a dog. If one of the neighbors gets angry and kills the dog, then the other neighbor has the right to sue to recover damages from the person who owns the dog.